Transport history

Tyler Cowen of Marginal Revolution quotes an interesting extract today from a new book on the history of India:

…the most important technological change for the transportation of heavy goods in nineteenth-century India was not the arrival of the quick, expensive railway: it was the move from pack animals to carts pulled by two or four beasts in the first half of the century.  This was the process historian Amalendu Guha calls ‘the bullock cart revolution’.  Throughout the 1860s and 1870s railways found it impossible to compete not only with bullock carts, but also with human-powered river transport.  Rowing boats along the Ganges and Jamuna won a price war with the railways over the cost of transporting heavy goods.  Vessels powered by human beings were able to undercut steam vessels elsewhere.

There is a description of the book (which I have now ordered) here.

How did transport in Ireland compare? In the first half of the century, road transport using Scotch carts dominated carrying. Within about 55 miles of Dublin, eastward of Mullingar on the Royal and Tullamore on the Grand, canal carriers did little business except in the heaviest goods: the Scotch carts, each drawn by one horse and carrying about one ton, dominated the trade. But the Scotch carts relied on there being good roads, which in many cases required government intervention of one sort or another.

But rowing boats do not seem to have been serious contenders on Irish inland waterways. They might have been used on the Shannon, to tow canal boats, and the idea was mooted, but nothing seems to have come of it. The problem, I suspect, was that there was little or no trade: when it did arrive, it did so because the steamers created it. And the capital cost of a large pulling boat might have been beyond the means of a small-scale entrepreneur who might have been able to afford a cart.

On the other hand, vessels powered by sail retained certain markets, including traffic across the Irish Sea, until the middle of the twentieth century.

Much about Irish transport history remains unclear to me.

A new career

I’ve decided to take up tomation.

I don’t know what it is, but it has something to do with cakes. Does it mean topping them with tomatoes or adding tomato puree?

I saw it written on a van:


Pirates on the Shannon

On last night, near Tervoe, a sail-boat, on its way up the river, from Labbysheedy, was attacked by twelve armed men, who approached in two cots from the Tervoe side of the river. Each cot, or small boat, contained six men, armed with guns or pistols. The sail-boat was boarded by the occupants of one of the cots, while the other six remained alongside, for the purpose of observation, or repulsion, if, perchance, assistance should be rendered.

Labasheeda, Tervoe and Limerick (OSI ~1900)

Labasheeda, Tervoe and Limerick (OSI ~1900)

The sail-boat having been usually engaged in the conveyance of flour and other provisions from Labbysheedy to Limerick, the presumption is, that the parties were led to suppose the boat was laden with the usual kind of freight. But they were mistaken. They found no provisions, tho’ they took care not to go away empty-handed. They seized three or four boxes laden with valuable property, and succeeded in carrying them off, of course without meeting any resistance on the part of those who were on board the sail-boat.

We believe outrages of this kind are not infrequent on the river. Something should be done to afford secure protection to the trade between this city and the several places down the stream.

Limerick and Clare Examiner 2 February 1848

From the British Newspaper Archive

From the BNA


My OSI logo and permit number for website

Trolley canal boats

Fascinating page here; h/t TC/R&CHS. IIRC someone wrote to the Editor of the Irish Times in about 1906 suggesting an electric system for the canals in Dublin, but I cannot find the reference at the moment.

The Irish family farm …

why we don’t need it.

h/t Alex Tabarrok on Marginal Revolution

Cussane lock

Cussane or Coosaun Lock was the lowest of three on the Killaloe Canal, which was the uppermost section of the Limerick Navigation. It was a double lock or “staircase pair”.

Cussane Lock (OSI ~1900)

Cussane Lock (OSI ~1900)


You can see what the lockkeeper’s house looked like in 2015 in the article “A Flooded Landscape Revealed“, written by folk who surveyed the area last year for Irish Water.

My OSI logo and permit number for website

An aerial view of the Shannon

I had much pleasure in availing myself of an ascent in Mr Hampton’s Balloon on Monday, accompanied by that gentleman and Mr Townsend. At two minutes to five, all the necessary arrangements being made, the bridling was cast off, and we ascended (apparently to us in the balloon gradually), but having relieved the car of five bags of ballast, which was thrown over, our ascent then became much more rapid.

The course taken by the balloon being at first almost due north we glided beautifully across the Shannon, and found ourselves at twelve minutes after five, at the north side of the river. The balloon, in this position, rested for some minutes, giving us an opportunity of gazing on the grand and magnificent panorama beneath us.

The prospect of Limerick was very extraordinary, every street, lane, and building, being at the same moment distinctly visible, but so apparently diminished in size that it assumed more the appearance of a beautiful miniature model than the actual city; the expanse of view was vastly greater than I anticipated, the various windings of the Shannon, with little interruption, being visible to Killaloe, above which the grand and noble expanse of water on Lough Derg was a prominent feature, flanked on either side with a lofty range of mountains. The view of the lower Shannon was also very attractive, extending far below the Beeves’ tower, and on which was visible one of the river steamers towing, I will not say a large ship, for it appeared no bigger than a turf boat.

We now bent our course towards Cratloe Wood, and at 22 minutes after 5, found ourselves standing right over its centre, the appearance of which was very extraordinary, the trees appearing more like a beautiful mantling of richly-coloured heath, or of short brushwood. Here I took an indication of a barometer, brought up at the request of Mr Wallace, the proprietor of the Observatory, for the purpose of getting for him its indication at the greatest altitude, and by which I found we were still ascending, soon getting us into another current, floating the balloon gradually towards the Shannon; and, at 30 minutes after 5, we found ourselves over the north bank of the river, opposite the Maigue.

The flight of the balloon (OSI ~1840)

The flight of the balloon (OSI ~1840)

There, by indication of the barometer, it appeared we attained our greatest altitude, being then 4261 feet above the level of the river. The country beneath, from this great height, much resembled one of the Ordnance Survey maps. Undulations of the ground, except hills and mountains at a distance, not being visible, and large fields looking not much bigger than pocket-handkerchiefs; nor could I help thinking what a sad waste of land there was under stone walls, making such varied subdivision of property, and being much more numerous than I had any idea of.

At this altitude the atmosphere was so rarified that Mr Townsend felt his respiration considerably affected, which, under such circumstances, is very usual, though I did not experience it.

I was particularly attracted in this place, as would be supposed of perfect tranquillity, removed from the busy world, to find the buzz or murmuring sound of those beneath us (though, I need hardly say, invisible) ascend and fall on the ear distinct, though faintly, being different from any sound I ever before experienced, and but ill-conveyed by my inadequate description.

I found we had now got into another current diametrically opposite to what had been our last travelling, having taken a rapid course in the direction of Ennis. The barometer indicating a gradual descent, at 45 minutes after 5, Mr Hampton deemed it advisable to prepare for his descent, the country wearing a favourable aspect for doing so, and here he first worked the valves for that purpose; so that our descent and progressive movement now became very rapid.

And at two minutes to six we once more came in contact with terra firma; the car first striking obliquely two walls about 5 feet high, of dry masonry, being at either side of a road or bye way, through which it made a clean breach to the very foundation; the car, after passing through the breach, again oscillated, and found its resting place in a pasture field at the foot of Ralahine demesne, about three miles from Newmarket-on-Fergus, where we were quickly surrounded by a large peasantry, showing forth their true national characteristic generosity, for they not alone gave their most anxious aid in the saving of the balloon, and its various appendages, but many offered their horses to bring us into Limerick. Mr Creagh, I should also add, was most polite, having invited us to Ralahine, to partake of his hospitality.

I hope it may not be considered presumptive of me to state, from my slight knowledge of mechanical operations, that I consider Mr Hampton a perfect master of the management of a balloon, so far as practicable, and is, I feel, owed a debt of gratitude by the citizens of Limerick, for the very great treat which he has afforded them.

Hampden W Russell

Limerick and Clare Examiner 8 September 1849 in the British Newspaper Archive


On Tuesday 21 August 1849 the Southern Reporter and Cork Commercial Courier announced that “Mr Hampton, the aeronaut” had arrived in Limerick and was preparing to ascend thence in his balloon, the Erin go Bragh. It was not his first flight from Limerick: he had ascended in October 1846, when the necessary gas (£14 worth) seems to have been sponsored by the “Limerick Gas consumers company” [Limerick Reporter 6 and 13 October 1846].

The 1849 ascent was on Monday 3 September from Mr Marshall’s Repository, Upper Cecil Street, and was advertised in advance. According to the Limerick and Clare Examiner of 29 August 1849, the “Splendid Band of the 3d Buffs” was to attend. Ladies and Gentlemen could watch from reserved seats [2/=; children 1/=] in a gallery; Second Places cost 1/=, children 6d.

Mr [John] Hampton offered seats in the balloon’s car to ladies or gentlemen who wished to accompany him; the balloon could lift six people and had two cars, one for descending over land and the other “for Sea-ports, in case the wind should be for Sea”. Those interested could find the fares by applying to himself at 12 Cecil Street or to Mr G Morgan Goggin at 34 George Street.

My OSI logo and permit number for website

From the BNA

RoI Budget 2016 for 2017

The Irish government’s Expenditure Report 2017 Parts I to III is available here [PDF]. The Department of Fairytales [aka Arts, Heritage, Regional, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs] gets a 1% increase for Programme D, North-South Co-operation, subject to the approval of the North/South Ministerial Council.

This programme includes certain language bodies and, more importantly, Waterways Ireland. The estimate for capital expenditure, almost all (if usual patterns prevail) for Waterways Ireland, is the same as for 2016, at €2799000, which suggests that the good people of Clones won’t be getting a sheugh any time soon, although judging by today’s Irish Times [possible paywall], they don’t seem to be expecting one.

The Programme D estimate for current spending is up from €34925000 to €35166000, making for an overall increase of one per cent.

The department’s overall capital allocation is down, but changes in departmental functions and the ending of the special anniversary funding make it impossible to say anything useful about that. Looking forward, the department’s Gross Voted Capital Expenditure is shown as €119 million for 2017, €115 million for 2018 and €118 million for 2019.

Waterways are funded only in order to promote northsouthery:

The aim of this Programme is to maintain, develop and foster North-South co-operation in the context of the implementation of the Good Friday Agreement. Under this Programme, the allocation for 2017 will:

– Through Foras na Gaeilge and the Ulster-Scots Agency, promote the Irish and Ulster Scots language and culture; and
 Through Waterways Ireland, maintain the waterways for some 15,000 registered boat users.

I presume Waterways Ireland will get extra funding to work out a system of border controls for the Shannon–Erne Waterway.

More budget stuff here.


Connecticut boaters

There are not so many of them. I wonder what’s happening in Ireland.



A change is ordered in respect to some of the ornaments of the head dress of the infantry. The brass scales attached to the caps are henceforward to be worn downwards, in place of a chinstrap. This regulation extends only to Ireland.

Freeman’s Journal 9 September 1831

From the BNA