Rule for ascertaining the weight of hay stacks
Measure the length and breadth of the stack; then take its height from the ground to the eaves, and add to this last one-third of the height from the eaves to the top. Multiply the length by the breadth, and the product by the height, all expressed in feet; divide the amount by 27, to find the cubic yards, which multiply by the number of stones supposed to be in a cubic yard (viz in a stack of new hay, six stones; if the stack has stood a considerable time, eight stones; and if old hay, nine stones), and you have the weight in stones.
For example, suppose a stack to be 60 feet in length, 30 in breadth, 12 in height from the ground to the eaves, and 9 (the third of which is 3) from the eaves to the top; then 60 X 30 X 15 = 27000; 27000 ÷ 27 = 1000; and 1000 X 9 = 9000 stones of old hay.
Samuel Salt Statistics and Calculations essentially necessary to Persons connected with Railways or Canals; containing a variety of information not to be found elsewhere 2nd ed Effingham Wilson, London 1846
You too can possess a copy of this invaluable book, which has much useful information about railways and canals
In England the trans-Pennine waterways are being closed (for through navigation) because of a shortage of water. The worst affected is the Leeds and Liverpool but the Huddersfield Narrow and the Rochdale will also be closed to through navigation. There are also restrictions on the Peak Forest and Macclesfield canals.
According to Mr Monks‘s plan for the intended northern line of navigation, great accommodation and advantages would be afforded to the inhabitants of that part of the kingdom that lies north of the city of Dublin, particularly to those of the province of Ulster, who are so numerous — for all the sea ports, all the considerable towns and villages would have a cheap and secure interchangeable communication with each other, and the metropolis, in peace or war, safe from enemies and storms, most desirable objects to that extensive manufacturing country.
The design is to run a canal from Dublin to Blackwater-town (about 68 miles); the river Blackwater is navigable from thence to Lough Neagh — and with very little expence afterwards the following great general navigable canal communication would be opened:
- to the east coast of Ireland by the river Liffey to the bay of Dublin
- by the Boyne Navigation (which the northern line would intersect near Navan) to the bay of Drogheda
- from Lough Neagh, by the Newry Navigation to Carlingford bay
- to the north east coast from Lough Neagh by the Belfast canal to Belfast lough, or Carrickfergus bay
- to the north coast from Lough Neagh by the river Bann to Colerain
- and by off-branching along the Ballyhays river about 10 miles, to the east end of Lough Erne, which is nearly navigable to the town of Ballyshannon, would open a communication with the bay of Donegall to the west
- and by the Grand Canal and Barrow Navigation to the south to Waterford harbour
- by the western branch of the Grand Canal, which will be shortly completed, to the Shannon, and the Limerick Navigation to the south west of Ireland.
And we understand (in order that the inland towns and villages should reap every advantage by this general plan) he proposes that canals of very small dimensions (which are made at very little expence) should be extended from the great lines to them for boats of only four tuns burden, where water cannot be obtained to answer canals of a larger scale; and wastage of locks, in place of which he would substitute machinery on a plain simple construction, to raise and lower them on inclined planes at the rate of 100 feet in four minutes, and which would also answer instead of aqueducts and embanking across wide valleys, one horse would be sufficient to draw, and one man to attend ten of these boats chained together, the whole carrying forty tons with great ease.
Thus not only the wealthy merchant and manufacturer, but the most inferior tradesman would have an opportunity of attending and disposing of his goods at the best market (let the quantity be ever so small) on equal terms, which would be a great means to defeat and put down forestalling — a most destructive species of dealing in a manufacturing country,
Dublin Evening Post 19 January 1797
Posted in Canals, Economic activities, Engineering and construction, Extant waterways, Foreign parts, Historical matters, Industrial heritage, Ireland, Irish inland waterways vessels, Irish waterways general, Unbuilt canals, waterways, Waterways management
Tagged canals, Ireland, Monks
More than 25,000 barges were being used on Britain’s inland waterways in the middle decades of the nineteenth century.
Philip S Bagwell The Transport Revolution from 1770 B T Batsford Ltd, London 1974
I wonder what the figure for Ireland was. My guess is that, including small turf boats and cots, it was probably less than one tenth of the British figure.
Posted in Canals, Economic activities, Extant waterways, Foreign parts, Historical matters, Ireland, Irish inland waterways vessels, Operations, Shannon, The cattle trade, The grain trade, The turf trade, waterways, Waterways management
Tagged barges, Britain, canal boats, canals, cots, inland waterways, Ireland, numbers, traffic, turf boats