Category Archives: Ashore

Railway archaeology

Ewan Duffy’s chapter “Royal Canal bridges in Dublin”, in The Royal under the Railway: Ireland’s Royal Canal 1830–1899 [Railway & Canal Historical Society, Derby 2014], drew attention to the hitherto neglected effects of the Midland Great Western Railway’s ownership on the physical structures along the Royal Canal in Dublin.

Ewan’s latest venture is a Railway Archaeology of Ireland, which he is publishing online, at the rate of one chapter per week. The introduction and Chapter 1 are now available. The focus is on “railway-related architectural and engineering structures”, not on trains or rolling stock.

It is possible to sign up to an RSS feed and thus get notified automatically when new chapters appear.

 

Canal oats

The Freeman’s Journal of 25 July 1832 included a report on the Dublin markets of the previous day. The report from the Dublin Corn Exchange said

We had a moderate supply in market, and prices may be quoted same as last.

The grains traded included wheat (prime red and prime white), grinding barley, malting barley, bere, new oats, new bere, oatmeal, M’Cann’s and First Flour, as well as

Prime Feeding Oats, 14 st [stone] to the brl [barrel], 11s 6d to 12s 0d

Canal ditto, 9s 6d to 9s 9d

Usage

The term “canal oats” is used in a report from New York in the Sydney Morning Herald in 1843 and another in  The Economist in 1847; the Central New-York Farmer has it in 1844 and Walt Whitman used the term in 1846. More from that side of the Atlantic anon.

The earliest occurrence I have found in the British Newspaper Archive is in the Dublin Evening Post of 11 March 1819:

Dublin Corn Exchange, March 10. — Our Market was but poorly supplied this day, particularly with Farmers’ Grains, owing to their being so much occupied at field work. — Canal Oats were more abundant than the demand warranted, and they were heavy sale from 16s to 17s 6d; prime, and for feeding, could not be got under 20s to 21s, and seed from 22s to 30s. — Wheat and Barley steady. — Malt, Flour and Oatmeal without variation, and in but indifferent demand.

There are other Irish instances in 1824, 1825 and 1826; in all cases the price of canal oats is below that of feeding oats.

The only British examples from this period, in Gore’s Liverpool General Advertiser on 23 February 1826 and in the Glasgow Herald on 21 April 1826, are from reports on the Dublin market.

I have not checked every occurrence, but my impression is that, to the end of 1840 (I looked no further), the term “canal oats” was used frequently in Irish newspapers from all parts of the island. However, the term was used only about the Dublin and Belfast corn markets; canals served both conurbations. British newspapers used the term only in reports from the Irish markets.

Meaning

I have found no definition of the term. Here, though, are some comments on possible connotations.

First, I presume that “canal oats” were oats that travelled [part of the way] to market by canal. It is likely that most oats came by road, probably on Scotch carts; that would have required packaging, no doubt in barrels of one kind or another. Some oats did arrive by non-canal boats: on 17 December 1838 the Dublin Mercantile Advertiser, and Weekly Price Current said

Limerick, Dec 15. — […] Oats since Wednesday in good supply by land carriage, prices declined ¼d to ½d per stone, to-day 11¾d is the highest down to 11d; by boat, 10d to 11d; barley, 12d to 15d. The depression of the London market on Wednesday accounts for the fall here.

Second, “canal oats” seems to have referred to oats of an inferior quality, or at least to oats that commanded lower prices. The Belfast Commercial Chronicle of 23 March 1839 referred to canal oats as “generally arriving out of condition”, proving difficult to sell and “going to warehouse for want of buyers”. The Pilot of 11 December 1839 referred to canal oats as “soft”; it is not clear whether that applies to their market or to their physical condition. On 16 February 1839 the Belfast Commercial Chronicle referred to canal oats as “unkilndried”: did that apply only to that batch or to all canal oats?

Third, the Limerick market report, above, suggests that lower prices may have applied to all oats arriving by water rather than by land. It is possible that the prices reflected something about the nature of the transport method rather than the inherent quality of the oats; alternatively, it is possible that water transport (which, where it was available, was probably cheaper than land transport) was chosen for the oats that would sell for less.

The first possibility has, I think, two sub-possibilities: that oats travelling by water might have been more at risk of damage or that their packaging might have been inferior: specifically, that they might have been a bulk cargo, poured loose into the hold, rather than packed in barrels. The Belfast Commercial Chronicle of 16 February 1839 might be taken to suggest that: “cargoes”, not barrels, were being sold, and by the ton rather than any lesser quantity:

Oats maintain their value, and cargoes have been sold from £8 5s [presumably per ton] to £8 7s 6d for unkilndried Canal Oats.

However, that is the only such example that my quick survey found.

Fourth, it is possible that canal oats were not used for human or equine consumption. The Dublin Morning Register of 3 November 1838 reported that

The supply of oats from the neighbouring farmers was short, and brought at the opening 13s to 13s 6d per barrel. Canal oats, of which rather a good quantity appeared, was taken off at 12s 6d to 13s per 196lbs. The distillers, anxious to get into stock, gave these prices freely. The advance is fully 1s 6d a barrel since Friday.

Again, that is an isolated example; it may be that the distillers did not always use oats.

Fifth, a case heard in the New York Court of Appeals in 1851, and reported in Henry R Selden Reports of Cases argued and determined in the Court of Appeals of the State of New York; with notes, references, and an index Vol I Little & Company, Albany 1853, concerned a contract for the sale of canal oats. The appeal was against the verdict in a case in which Messrs Vail and Adams sued Mr Rice

[…] in the court of common pleas of the city of New York for the breach of a contract dated New York April 28th 1847 for the sale of “a lot of canal oats, say about four thousand bushels, more or less, at forty seven cents per bushel, deliverable in all the month of May next, from boats at or near the foot of Broad street in this city, cash on delivery”.

The ultimate decision turned on other issues, but the relevant part is that Vail and Adams had called a witness who was in the grain trade and who said

[…] that oats sent by the canal vary about five per cent when they arrive from what they were when shipped. They generally overrun or fall short about five per cent. This is always expressed by the words ‘more or less’. We always make our contracts in that way and we mean by ‘more or less’ to provide for an excess or a diminution not over or under five per cent. We use the word ‘about’ to express the same thing. It is generally customary among us that the purchaser takes whatever it is, and gets the benefit or suffers the loss, not exceeding five per cent. On his cross examination the witness stated ‘The custom is a general custom. I have never known any particular instance. All the grain dealers do. SS & Co have such a custom. I can’t mention a particular instance. I can’t give any other instance. I have sold grain to M & D this way.’

If Irish usage was the same as American, this might strengthen the suggestion that canal oats were a bulk cargo, not measured before shipment, and thus with some uncertainty about the exact amount being shipped, bought or sold. That uncertainty might account for a lower price.

Envoi

None of that amounts to conclusive evidence, and I would be glad to hear from anyone [please leave a Comment below] who knows more than I do about canal oats.

 

State of trade on the River Suir [1842]

People who read this will hardly believe that such a state of things, as it details, can exist in any portion of the British dominions; and yet, in the year 1842, undoubtedly in Ireland, and in Ireland only, can we find such facts — positive facts.

It is still more surprising to find that this extraordinary state of things should exist on a river on which a very considerable export and import trade passes — and yet so it is.

A fair challenge to the Chambers of Commerce of Clonmel and Waterford is now given. Let them deny the following data, if they can, seriatim, honestly and plainly:—

  1. That the boat trade between Clonmel and Waterford is in the hands of so few persons that it is, in truth and fact, a monopoly to all intents and purposes.
  2. That those corn factors, who export their produce by these boats, are allowed to import coal, iron, timber, groceries, or other goods, at a lower rate of freight than merchants or shopkeepers, who only import those articles, and do not export.
  3. That combination exists amongst the boatmen to such an extent, that they are, in point of fact and truth, the masters of the river, and have in reality succeeded in their “strikes”.
  4. That only a certain fixed number of boats are allowed to ply on the river, and that when a new boat is built, part of an old boat must be worked up into the new one.
  5. That although great improvements have been effected at Carrick in deepening the river, and thus bringing up vessels to the new quay there, the boatmen of Clonmel and Carrick will not navigate any boats from Clonmel which are to ship their cargoes at Carrick, but they insist and do take such boats on to Waterford.
  6. That when the bill for the Limerick and Waterford railway passed, and £100000 was granted in aid — which railway was to pass through Carrick, Clonmel, Caher, and Tipperary — not one merchant in Clonmel took a share.
  7. That the exports of Waterford amount to above two millions annually, a considerable proportion of which is the produce of the vally [sic] of the Suir, and descends that river.
  8. That the state of the river Suir, as a navigation, between Clonmel and Carrick, is the worst in Ireland; that the import trade in these boats is dragged up the river by horses; that great delays take place, to such an extent, that the import trade suffers most considerably, to the detriment of every person in the community.
  9. That the expenses of the towing path &c fall upon the county at large.

Can it then be matter of surprise that, under such circumstances, Ireland is so much behind hand as she is?

Dublin Evening Mail 28 March 1842

Evasion of postage

General Post-office, Dublin, 17 March 1838

Sir

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 13th instant, desiring some information as to the modes of sending letters otherwise than by post.

Every species of contrivance that ingenuity can devise is resorted to for the purpose of evading the payment of postage; and though I cannot state decidedly the extent to which it is carried, but judging from the cases wherein the practice has been detected, I can have no hesitation in believing that it exceeds any idea persons in general may have formed of it.

Every coachman, carman, boatman, or other person whose business leads him to travel regularly between fixed places, is a carrier of letters; of this we have daily proof from the number of letters put into this office to be delivered by the penny-post, which have evidently been brought to Dublin by private hands, and which the officers of the sorting-office have estimated at about 400 per day.

Previous to the consolidation of the Post-office laws in August last, an Act, 53 Geo 3 c58, was in force in Ireland, which empowered the Postmaster-general to issue a warrant, upon sworn information, to search for letters illegally conveyed; and in May last a warrant of that description was issued against Patrick Gill, a carrier who travelled regularly between Granard and Dublin, and on his person were found 57 letters directed to persons in Dublin, which he had collected on the road; this Act was however repealed, and the clause which gave that power to the Postmaster-general was omitted in the Consolidation Acts: the Post-office has not now, therefore, that means of checking the illegal conveyance of letters. The fly-boats on the Royal and the Grand Canals, I am informed, carry great number of letters; the former extends to a distance of 90 miles from Dublin, and the latter to 94 miles, and through the entire distance of each of these lines letters are constantly collected for conveyance to Dublin.

The illegal transmission of letters to and from Great Britain has very much increased since the introduction of steam navigation: with the exception of Sunday, private steam-vessels pass daily between Dublin and Liverpool, and in the offices of the agents of such vessels a tin box is kept for the reception, they say, of consignees’ letters; but it is well known that vast numbers of letters of all descriptions are put into them, and the commanders not being compelled by the Custom-house to make the declaration required from masters of vessels from foreign ports, that all have been delivered at the Post-office, do not hesitate to convey them; but I have not any means of giving you a correct idea of the number of letters thus illegally conveyed.

The evasion of postage by means of newspapers, which is similarly injurious to the revenue with the illegal conveyance of letters, is also carried on to a great extent; it is the duty of the Post-office to examine newspapers to see that they are duly stamped and do not contain any writing or enclosure, and it is the practice to do so, as far as the vast number of them and the shortness of time will admit, without delaying the dispatch of the mails. I enclose an account showing the amount of postage charged in Dublin during each month from the 6th July 1836 to 5th January 1838 on newspapers containing writing or enclosures, amounting to a total of £2828 15s; and in the country offices the amount charged on newspapers in the year 1836, was £2122 9s 11d, and in 1837 it amounted to £3196 16s 11d. The practice is therefore increasing, and this I am inclined to believe scarcely amounts to one quarter of the postage on what are liable to charge, if it were possible that all newspapers could undergo a proper examination. I fear the practice is not absolutely confined to second-hand newspapers, but that the accounts of many news-agents are transmitted to subscribers in the same way; their papers are, however, so numerous, and are put into the office so short a time before the despatch of the mails, it is quite impossible to examine them.

Another mode of evading the payment of postage, or rather the writing of letters, is resorted to by factors, who publish printed circulars showing the state of the markets as respects their own particular trade; such circulars they get stamped as newspapers, which entitles them to free transmission by post, and their correspondents are distinguished therein by numbers. I have one now before me with the following communications in one of its columns: “No 17, You have a remittance this post.” “No 20, 84 sacks at 18s are sold.” “No 27, Yours not yet received.” “No 50, Nothing as yet done in yours.” These are taken from Mooney’s Corn and Flour Circular, which is published once a week, and 15s a year is the charge for it.

No instance of the illegal conveyance of letters to or from the villages in the neighbourhood of Dublin has ever come to my knowledge; many may be carried by occasional passengers, but I have not had any reason to suppose that an illegal collection of letters is made at any of the villages.

The enclosed piece of paper, which shows the pains and trouble taken to evade the payment of postage, was put into my hand this morning by the president of the sorting-office; it was found in the letter-box, and seems to be part of an old letter with a memorandum directing the person it was intended for, to inquire at two very respectable and well-known houses in Dublin, if they could send some letters to Tralee.

I have communicated to the solicitor (Mr Thompson) the postscript to your letter; he will search his books and papers and extract any useful information he possesses on the subject; he is summoned as a witness before the Kinsale Election Committee, and is to be in London on the 27th instant; perhaps, therefore, you may prefer examining him before the Committee on Postage, to any statement he may be able to make in writing.

I have &c
Aug[ustus] Godby

From Appendix 9 to First Report from the Select Committee on Postage; together with the minutes of evidence, and appendix Ordered to be Printed 10th May 1838 [149]

Ardnacrusha by train

Here’s an event.

I think that Heuston Station means Kingsbridge.

Taking the piscatorial

Piscatorial

We are glad to observe that the fishing at Killaloe is this season, as heretofore, attracting, in pursuit of their thoroughly delightful but simple sport, numerous ardent bands of the “Knights of the Angle”; and the comfortable quartiers of the old “Royal” — without question the nicest home in the province for the Waltonian — are, in consequence, being daily eagerly secured by anglers of condition from various parts of Ireland, as well as from England and Scotland. We can only wish them propitious weather, the May-fly “well up”, heavy creels, and after their day’s enjoyment, in the evening merry meetings with abundant cheer.

Dublin Evening Mail 6 June 1860 quoting the Limerick Chronicle

Crinoline had its full sway

King’s County (from our correspondent)

Pic-nic on the River Shannon

One of the most delightful re-unions of the gentry of this and the adjoining counties that has taken place for many years came off on Tuesday last. The Dublin Steampacket Company kindly placed one of their steamers (the Lady Lansdowne) at the disposal of their respected agent, T F Fleetwood Esq, Banagher.

At an early hour Banagher presented a stirring scene. Carriages and other vehicles arrived in rapid succession with their precious cargoes at the quay, where awaited their arrival this handsome vessel, gaily decorated for the occasion. Here ensued a gay and bustling scene — ladies occupying no small space, gentlemen running to and fro, seeing to the comfort of their charges, while carts laden with all the delicacies of the season were being delivered.

At ten o’clock the signal was given by the captain — steam up, and this joyous company took their departure for Killaloe, the amateur band on board striking up one of its best amidst the plaudits of numerous spectators who had assembled on the quay.

Two o’clock arrived, and with it came the gallant ship to the beach at Killaloe, where the Picnicians landed and repaired to the beautiful grounds and gardens attached to the Palace, where the show and splendour of the flowers can scarcely be surpassed. In this delightful promenade two hours passed as a fleeting minute, when all were summoned once more to meet, as it were, on a marine parade — and, indeed, a happy mustering it was — “roll called”, and nearly one hundred and fifty being present.

Here a knife and fork exercise was created in which all bore a ready and willing part. This being terminated and the deck cleared dancing commenced, and was kept up with great spirit for some time, when tea was announced, and when over dancing was again resumed and enjoyed until ten o’clock, when the handsome bridge at Banagher told that the day was spent; and the spirits of all seemed to sink when the vessel touched the wharf where to land them for their homes. Never was there a more joyous and happy day spent on the waters of the noble Shannon

Spreading forth like the sea

nor its delightful scenery more fully appreciated. All was harmony and good humour — nothing occurred to mar the happiness of the meeting, and everything was so admirably arranged, owing to the indefatigable exertions of Mr and Mrs Fleetwood, combined with the polite attention of the commander of the ship — in fact everything required was to be had in a moment, and no crowding or confusion of any kind, although crinoline had its full sway.

Amongst the company were the following: The High Sheriff, Mrs and the Misses Seymour, Ballymore Castle; Mr James Drought (late High Sheriff) and Mrs Drought; the Misses Eyre, the Castle; The Eyres, Hassop Park; Mrs and Miss Graves, Cloghan Castle; Mr John P Armstrong and Mrs Armstrong, Mr W B Armstrong, Mrs and the Misses Armstrong; Mr and Mrs Rolleston, Miss Rolleston and the Misses Woods; Mr, Mrs and Miss Hill; Colonel, Mrs and Miss Manners, and Miss Sandes; Mrs, the Misses and Mr M’Causland; Captain and the Misses Gascoine, Colonel Eyre, Mr Stradford Eyre, Mr Usher, Messrs and Miss Seymour, Mr John H Moore and family, Mrs Bird and party, Mr and Mrs Owen, and the Misses Horsman; Mr, Mrs and Miss Fleeetwood; Messrs Robinson and Miss Robinson, Mr and Miss Purefoy, Dr Tarleton, Mrs Montgomery and Miss Blake, Rev Mr and Mrs Stavely, the Misses Wetherell; Rev Mr, Mrs and Miss Bell, Miss Good, Dr Barry; Messrs Warren, Stack, Tabiteau &c &c.

Saunders’s News-Letter 8 July 1859

Victoria’s secrets

Victoria uncovered, as you’ve [probably] never seen her before: very interesting photos by Niall Galway here.

Maggie May: Liverpool 1840

Brothels

31st December 1839: 591
31st December 1840: 568
Decrease: 23

Number of those existing in 1839 which were still open on 31st December 1840: 435
Number opened in 1840: 133
Number closed in 1840: 156

Proprietors having given up keeping these houses: 88
Proprietors having been reformed: 35
Proprietors in prison: 20
Proprietors having been transported: 4
Proprietors having died: 9

Number of prostitutes 31st December 1839: 2057
Number of prostitutes 31st December 1840: 2083
Increase: 26

Average number in each house: 3½

Houses, not Brothels, in which Prostitutes lodge

31st December 1839: 184
31st December 1840: 199
Decrease: 15

Number of those existing in 1839 which were still open on 31st December 1840: 156
Number opened in 1840: 43
Number closed in 1840: 28

Proprietors having given up keeping these houses: 19
Proprietors having been reformed: 8
Proprietors having died: 1

Number of prostitutes 31st December 1839: 347
Number of prostitutes 31st December 1840: 406
Increase: 59

Average number in each house: 2

Source

Adapted from Table No 181 “Statement of the number of brothels, prostitutes, prostitutes’ lodging houses, mendicant’s [sic] lodging houses, and houses for the reception of stolen property, within the jurisdiction of the Liverpool Police, during the year 1840” in Tables of the Revenue, Population, Commerce, &c of the United Kingdom and its Dependencies Part X 1840 compiled from official returns HMSO London 1842

 

 

 

 

Killaloe Bridge

A new bridge for Killaloe:

We may here state that in the projected improvements of the Shannon, the rapids will be lowered, a new bridge erected, and the navigation of the river between Killaloe and Limerick materially altered.

James Fraser, Landscape Gardener and Designer of Rural Improvements A Hand Book for Travellers in Ireland, descriptive of its scenery, towns, seats, antiquities, etc with various statistical tables. Also an outline of its mineral structure, a brief view of its botany, and information for anglers William Curry, Jun and Company, Dublin; Longman and Company, London; Fraser and Co, Edinburgh 1844

It took a while, but the new bridge seems to be on its way. The old bridge — which has been altered in many ways over the years — has done enough and deserves to be relieved of the volume of traffic crossing it daily.

Anyone intending to create any further delays to the bypass should be invited to go and boil his or her head.